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Crop Circles
The crop circles (in English crop circles), or sour-glyph, are areas of cereal fields, or similar crops, where plants appear uniformly flattened, forming various geometric shapes (sometimes referred to as ‘pictograms’) well visible from above. Following the growing number of appearances of these figures (especially in England) from the end of the seventies of the twentieth century, the phenomenon of crop circles has become the target of the investigation to determine the origin of these figures. Various hypotheses have been advanced to explain the creation of these figures: from natural explanation (ie that it is man-made figures, mainly as joke or artistic expression) to the paranormal than UFO.

Whatever theory you choose to embrace, many are clearly man-made circles such as those made by Doug Bower, Dave Chorley e John Lundberg. Bower e Chorley were then awarded the  Ig Nobel in 1992 for the design of their hoax crop circles.

First appearances

Crop Circles

The crop circle came under the spotlight in the early eighties, with the first three circles in England. Speculation about possible alien landings was highlighted in national newspapers and since then the crop circles began to appear more and more in the English countryside.

The Wiltshire Timeswas one of the first newspapers to deal with and try to use English in 1980 the term crop circles.

Attempts to seek a presence in past ages have not yet produced concrete results. Sometimes history is cited “Devil reaper“, a pamphlet of 1678, but a careful analysis shows that the correlation with crop circles is forced. Another concerns the fact that aerial surveys were made over large areas of United Kingdom not long after World War II, which revealed something unexpected, not identifiable from the ground. Following studies showed different levels of maturity in wheat, indicating differences in the subsoil. Finally it was discovered that these patterns in wheat were due to buried remains of ancient buildings. Archaeological investigations were started immediately and several archaeological sites were discovered first unexpected, but no crop circle.

Forms of crop circles

Crop CirclesThe first examples of this phenomenon were usually simple circular shapes of various sizes, which led some to speculate that it was a natural phenomenon. After a few years but have emerged ever more elaborate and complex designs, whose nature could not be of natural origin.

There have been many recurring themes over the years. In general, the early formations (1970 – 2000) seemed based on the principles of sacred geometry. Successive formations, those that appear after 2000, appear to be based on other principles, natural sciences and mathematical designs, including fractals. Over time the figures have become increasingly creative, many crop circles have fine detail developed, with intricate symmetries in symmetry and other variations on different scales of magnitude. Sometimes they even appeared with illustrations of cartoon characters.

Interpretations proposed

Crop CirclesBefore the latest crop circles showed a variety of regular geometric figures, were proposed interpretations of purely physical and are no longer topical. They range from the winds and tornadoes, to ball lightning (in English BOL or ball of light,balls of light), up to a hypothetical process called plasma vortex.

In contrast, one of the most extreme cases have ever been proposed is that the circles are created by alien craft landed on the field, flattening the crops in a well defined circle. But as mentioned earlier, the increasing complexity of formations detected in the 1980 can now rule out with reasonable certainty any hypothesis or more or less simplistic fantasy that had been made initially.

Some, however, suggest that a more plausible explanation may be the Cymatics, the study of geometric structures that appear for example when you initiate a stretched membrane with vibrations or sounds. According to this hypothesis the complex geometric designs could then be visual representations of sound frequencies, assuming that resonant frequencies gradually increasing pictograms may have produced more complex, like the mandala.

Crop CirclesA number of witnesses claims [citation needed] to have observed the creation of the circles by moving balls of light, saying that the phenomenon takes place within a few seconds. These witnesses would certainly have major cognitive if we could confirm in a convincing way (there is a movie that documents the fact, but has been declared a fake by the authorities), but much remains to be done to give them a value of actual test.

Another fanciful hypothesis is that an artificial satellite in orbit around the Earth is using some kind of energy emission (eg within a microwave or maser) to create designs. It was noted that heating the stalks of corn stalks with an intense emission of microwave energy can produce deflation similar to those found in crop circles. Stems flattened the crop circles are often bent just below a node, and may also submit the blackened burn possibly caused by intense heating. The proponents of this theory speculate that the “Star Wars” the Pentagon may have developed a satellite could deliver that type of microwave radiation.

Crop CirclesProponents of the more imaginative hypotheses on the origin of crop circles assert that, for those deemed not created by man, the stalks seem to be bent just below one of the joints, they get to without breaking, while the grain bent man has unmistakably a break at a point in the stem.

Was also noted that the growth of stems bent continues in the new horizontal arrangement, and some scientists as W. C. Levengood and E. H. Haselhoff have been able to establish in the laboratory and the seeds collected within such circles have a growth curve significantly accelerated compared with normal seeds.

In contrast to what mentioned on bending joints, to say that there is a perfectly normal: the stems of cereal react to stretching breaks at the critical point at the first light of day even managed to continue growth. It is clear that this phenomenon works on stalks bent in a “natural” or from a wave of wind or a pressure like that of a board that bends but does not break the stems.

Crop Circles posterIn contrast to all beliefs, the CICAP stated that all crop circles are man-made in a few hours, with little means and with all or part of the phenomena associated with them.

Finally, sources close to the school of thought commonly known New Age (taking into account the wide variety of viewpoints that do not allow for easy schematic head) were made on the claims of those who suggest a marked connection with the crop circle phenomena related mystical spiritual evolution of humanity. It has been suggested that the various pictographs etched on wheat fields contain coded messages transmitted on a graphic to some form of higher consciousness that we inwardly and genetically related. These messages have a role in some cases warning of the dangers that global resource use could cause devastating to humanity and the entire ecosystem (and in this sense, the implicit reference to the grain would be non-random). According to this view of things which is often attributed to the phenomenon of Channeling, pictograms would be structurally capable of speaking directly to the deeper layers of human consciousness and intuitive. This phenomenon has been studied from the anthropological point of view from Andrea Feliziani.

Some point out that many of these circles, especially those in southern England, located near ancient sacred sites of Celtic tradition, particularly near the megalithic circles such as Stonehenge and some burial mounds, or in the vicinity of large animal figures carved on the hillsides of the Wiltshire area.


The first examples of this phenomenon were usually simple circular shapes of various sizes, which led some to speculate that it was a natural phenomenon. After a few years but have emerged ever more elaborate and complex designs, whose nature could not be of natural origin.















There have been many recurring themes over the years. In general, the early formations (1970 – 2000) seemed based on the principles of sacred geometry. Successive formations, those that appear after 2000, appear to be based on other principles, natural sciences and mathematical designs, including fractals. Over time the figures have become increasingly creative, many crop circles have fine detail developed, with intricate symmetries in symmetry and other variations on different scales of magnitude. Sometimes they even appeared with illustrations of cartoon characters.

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